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Article No.
03-20-3

10/13/03
DRIVEABILITY - MALFUNCTION INDICATOR LAMP
(MIL) ILLUMINATED WITH DTC'S P0442, P0455,
P0456, P0457, P1442 OR CHECK FUEL CAP LAMP
ILLUMINATED WITH DTC P0457

FORD:
1997-2000 CONTOUR
1997-2002 ESCORT
1997-2003 CROWN VICTORIA, MUSTANG, TAURUS
1998-2003 ESCORT ZX2
2000-2003 FOCUS
2002-2003 THUNDERBIRD
1997 F-250 HD
1997-1999 F-250 LD
1997-2003 E SERIES, EXPEDITION, EXPLORER, F-150, RANGER, WINDSTAR
1999-2003 F SUPER DUTY
2000-2003 EXCURSION
2001-2003 ESCAPE, EXPLORER SPORT TRAC, EXPLORER SPORT

LINCOLN:
1997-1998 MARK VIII
1997-2002 CONTINENTAL
1997-2003 TOWN CAR
2000-2003 LS
1998-2003 NAVIGATOR
2002-2003 BLACKWOOD

MERCURY:
1997-1999 TRACER
1997-2000 MYSTIQUE
1997-2003 GRAND MARQUIS, SABLE
1999-2002 COUGAR
1997-2003 MOUNTAINEER

This article supersedes TSB 03-9-8 to update the vehicle lines and Service Procedures.

ISSUE
Some vehicles may exhibit a Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) illuminated with Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) P0442, P0455, P0456, P0457 or P1442 or a "Check Fuel Cap" Lamp illuminated with DTC P0457 for the Evaporative Emission System. This may be caused by loose or leaking hoses, loose or broken fuel cap, a leak at the top of the fuel filler pipe neck, etc.

ACTION
Use the Rotunda Leak Detector Smoke Machine (Part 218-00001) or equivalent, to locate and repair leaks in the Evaporative Emission System. Refer to the following Service Procedure for details.

Definitions of Acronyms
^ CVS Canister Vent Solenoid
^ DTC Diagnostic Trouble Code
^ EVAP Evaporative Emissions System
^ EVMV Electronic Vapor Management Valve
^ FTP Fuel Tank Pressure
^ MIL Malfunction Indicator Lamp
^ NGS New Generation STAR Tester
^ PID Parameter Identifier WDS Worldwide Diagnostic System

SERVICE PROCEDURE

NOTE
THIS PROCEDURE SUPERSEDES ALL OTHER PROCEDURES PUBLISHED IN SERVICE MANUALS AND TSB ARTICLES.

NOTE
MANY EVAP LEAKS ARE CAUSED BY A LOOSE OR FAULTY CAP. IF THE FUEL CAP IS SUSPECT DURING VISUAL INSPECTION,
DO NOT DISTURB THE FUEL CAP UNTIL THE DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURE IS COMPLETE. IF THE LEAK VERIFICATION FAILS, THE CAP CAN BE REPOSITIONED OR REPLACED AND THE TEST REPEATED. THIS ACTION WILL ISOLATE THE CAP FROM THE REST OF THE EVAP SYSTEM AS A POTENTIAL CONCERN. IF DEBRIS ON THE SEALING SURFACE OF THE CAP APPEARS TO BE THE SOURCE OF THE LEAK, CLEAN THE CAP AND REINSTALL.

OVERVIEW OF TEST PROCEDURES
NOTE
SEE (FIGURE 1) AT END OF ARTICLE FOR TEST PROCEDURE FLOWCHART.

This TSB provides the following procedures:
^ Check the EVAP Canister Purge Valve (9C915) for a no flow condition
^ Locate a leak so that a repair can be performed
^ Verify repair by utilizing a metered air pressure test

EVAP CANISTER PURGE VALVE NO FLOW TEST
1. Using WDS Datalogger select the following PID's: EVAPVM # (or EVMV#), EVAPCV # and FTP.

2. Start the vehicle.

3. Close both the Canister Vent Solenoid (CVS) (EVAPCV # On or 100% duty cycle) and the EVAP Canister Purge Valve (EVAPVM# Off or zero % duty cycle).

4. While monitoring the FTP PID, command open the EVAP Canister Purge Valve with the EVAPVM# PID to 100% duty

5. If the FTP decreases and/or the RPM changes and/or the engine stalls, the test passed. Turn off engine and proceed to test procedures below. Otherwise replace the EVAP Canister Purge Valve, verify the repair by repeating the No Flow Test and return vehicle.

SYSTEM LEAK CHECK (SMOKE TEST PROCEDURE)
1. Disconnect the larger of two manifold vacuum lines at the EVAP Canister Purge Valve and cap it at the EVAP Canister Purge Valve (see Figure 2).


2. Connect the Smoke Machine power cables to vehicle battery The "Power Indicator Lamp" should be on indicating a good battery contact.

3. Position the selector valve on Rotunda's Smoke Machine Control Panel to "SMOKE".

4. Locate the vehicle's Evaporative Emission Service Test Port and remove the green cap. The EVAP Service Test Port is located close to or on the EVAP Canister Purge Valve.
WARNING
DO NOT REMOVE THE SCHRADER VALVE. REMOVING THE SCHRADER VALVE FROM THE TEST PORT ON VEHICLES EQUIPPED
WITH THE ELECTRONIC VAPOR MANAGEMENT VALVE (9G641) AND/OR ELECTRONIC VAPOR MANAGEMENT VALVE &
BRACKET ASSEMBLY (9G683) (SEE FIGURE 3), OR EVAP CANISTER PURGE VALVE (9C915) AND/OR EVAP CANISTER PURGE
VALVE & BRACKET ASSEMBLY (9F933) (SEE FIGURE 2) WILL PERMANENTLY DAMAGE THE VALVE.

5. Install the EVAP Emission Test Port Adapter that is provided with the Rotunda's Smoke Machine to EVAP Canister Purge Valve test port.
NOTE
SPECIAL PROCEDURES HAVE BEEN DESIGNATED FOR WINDSTAR, LS, THUNDERBIRD & PZEV FOCUS BECAUSE THEY HAVE A
CHECK VALVE THAT WILL PREVENT SMOKE FROM ENTERING THE FILLER NECK.


6. Connect black smoke hose nozzle tip to the EVAP Emission Test Port Adapter. For all except Windstar, LS, Thunderbird & PZEV Focus Use NGS or WDS to close CVS. (CVS WILL REOPEN AFTER NINE (9) MINUTES OF CONTINUOUS OPERATION).

7. For all except Windstar, LS, Thunderbird & PZEV Focus - Remove the fuel cap from the vehicle. Depress remote starter button: Smoke will be introduced into the EVAP Emission System. Secure the fuel cap once smoke is seen exiting from the fuel tank's neck area. For Windstar, LS, Thunderbird & PZEV Focus, do not remove fuel cap. Depress starter button and introduce smoke to system until it can be seen exiting the CVS (located by filler neck). Once smoke is seen, use NGS or WDS to close CVS. (CVS WILL REOPEN AFTER NINE (9) MINUTES OF CONTINUOUS OPERATION).

8. Press and release the remote starter button in intervals of approximately 15 seconds on and 15 seconds off. Use the halogen light provided with the Smoke Machine to look for smoke in the engine compartment, EVAP hoses to EVAP Canister Purge Valve, CVS, carbon canister and area around the fuel cap. Wiggle fuel vapor lines to check for leaks. Check for leaks in areas that are difficult to access, such as connections on top of the tank where connections may be or inside frame rails. Use the black light to ensure that there are no leaks. If a leak is detected, repair as necessary. If the leak is not detected from the top, check under the bottom of vehicle. Inspect the EVAP hoses running to the carbon canister, fuel filler neck, CVS, and EVAP Canister Purge Valve. Go to LEAK VERIFICATION to verify any repair or if no leak is found.

LEAK VERIFICATION (METERED AIR SYSTEM)
1. Position the selector valve located on the Smoke Machine control panel to "METER".

2. Verify calibration of the flow meter by using the .020" calibrated leak orifice. To do this, insert air supply hose (transparent hose) nozzle tip into appropriate EVAP System calibrated leak orifice located on the front of the Smoke Machine panel.

3. TURN ON: Depress the remote starter button. Observe the position of the flow meter indicator ball. Position the flow meter red pointer flag so it aligns with the measurement of the indicator ball. Release the button and remove the air supply hose nozzle tip from the EVAP System calibrated leak orifice.
NOTE
THIS FLOW METER CALIBRATION MEASUREMENT INDICATES THE VEHICLE PASS OR FAIL CRITERIA BASED ON THE .020"
EVAP SYSTEM LEAK STANDARD.

4. Connect the transparent air supply hose nozzle tip into the EVAP Service Test Port adapter.

5. Use NGS or WDS Diagnostic tool to CLOSE the CVS.

6. Depress the remote starter button on the Rotunda's Smoke Leak Detector. The indicator ball in the flowmeter will go all the way to the top indicating the system is being pressurized. Continue to depress the remote starter button until the ball stops descending. Once the indicator ball has stopped descending, observe if it is above or below the red indicator flag. If performing this verification following a repair, go to Step 7. If performing this verification after performing the SYSTEM LEAK CHECK (SMOKE TEST PROCEDURE), go to Step 8.

7. Leak Verification After Repair
a. If the measurement is below the indicator flag the system has passed. The test procedure is complete. Remove the Smoke Machine Test equipment from the vehicle and reconnect the large EVAP Canister Purge Valve manifold vacuum hose and the test port's green cap.
b. If the measurement is above the indicator flag, repeat SYSTEM LEAK CHECK (SMOKE TEST PROCEDURE).

8. Leak Verification After Passing SYSTEM LEAK CHECK (SMOKE TEST PROCEDURE)
a. If the measurement is below the indicator flag the system has passed, go to Step 9.
b. If the measurement is above the indicator flag, repeat SYSTEM LEAK CHECK (SMOKE TEST PROCEDURE).

9. Using WDS Datalogger or NGS select the FTPV PID.

10. Remove Fuel Cap and turn the vehicle's ignition switch to the run position and check the FTPV PID.

11. The nominal value for the FTPV PID is 2.6V. If the value is greater than 2.8V or less than 2.4V, the FTP sensor is out of range and should be replaced. Verify the repair by checking to see if the new sensor is in range. For all except Windstar, LS, Thunderbird & PZEV Focus - if the sensor is within range, the concern is no longer present. (Windstar, LS, Thunderbird & PZEV Focus go to Step 12.)

12. For Windstar, LS, Thunderbird & PZEV Focus only verify that filler neck clamps are in good working order and tightened. Repair as necessary. If no problem is found with clamps, replace the fuel cap.

OTHER APPLICABLE ARTICLES: NONE
SUPERSEDES: 03-9-8
WARRANTY STATUS: INFORMATION ONLY

 

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Engine

01-030/03

2001-2005 Tribute, 1997-2004 B-Series - MIL ON
WITH DTCS P0442 P0455 P0456 P0457 P1442 OR CHECK
FUEL CAP LIGHT ON WITH DTC P0457

APPLICABLE MODEL(S)/VINS
2001-2005 Tribute
1997-2004 B-Series

DESCRIPTION
Some vehicles may exhibit a MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) with DTC P0442, P0455, P0456, P0457 or P1442 or a Check Fuel Cap light illuminated with DTC P0457. These conditions may be caused by loose or leaking fuel cap or leaks anywhere in the evaporative emission system between the fuel tank and the engine.

NOTE:
^ Testing procedures described in this bulletin use the Mazda Evaporative Emission Tester P/N 134-01049. When using another tester follow the operating instructions for your tester.
^ Evaporative leaks may be caused by a loose, dirty or faulty fuel filler cap. Do not clean or replace the fuel filler cap until positively identifying it as the source of a leak through testing.

EVAPORATIVE VALVE OPERATION
The purging of fuel vapor stored in the charcoal canister is controlled by the EVAP charcoal canister where vapors are stored, one directs vapors to the intake manifold when the engine is running. So in order for this valve to purge vapors, the electronic valve must be commanded on by the PCM and the check valve must be opened by vacuum from a running engine.


PID = EVAPVM # )

A duty cycle of 0% = no flow and a duty cycle of 100% = full flow.

Electronic Vapor Management Valves are electronically controlled valves with only 2-ports: one leads to the EVAP charcoal canister where vapors are stored, one directs vapors to the intake manifold for combustion.


EVAPCV or EVAP Canister Vent valve: This valve mounted on or near the charcoal canister allows fresh air to be drawn into the fuel system to prevent fuel tank collapse during purging. It also allows the system to be sealed for leak testing the EVAP system.

PID EVAPCV # )

A duty cycle of 0% full flow or open to atmosphere and a duty cycle of 100% = no flow or closed for EVAP system testing.

NOTE:
This valve operation is exactly opposite the EVAP Canister Purge Valve and the Electronic Vapor Management Valve.

PROCEDURE 1:
Verifying A Very Small Leak (0.20" DTC P0456) Exists In The Evaporative Emission System Or After Repair Leak Test

NOTE:
^ Verify there is enough pressure in the gas bottle (only use inert gas such as Nitrogen or Argon) to perform testing (More than 670 kpa (100 psi)).
^ Verify there is adequate smoke generating fluid in the smoke machine reservoir.
^ Vehicle fuel tank must be between 1/4 and 3/4 full for accurate testing.

CAUTION:
Do not disturb the fuel filler cap or any other components in the evaporative emission system. Verify a leak exists before performing any repairs. A loose, leaking, improperly installed or dirty fuel filler cap can be the cause of a leak.

1. Test the evaporative emission system tester for leaks:
a. Position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "TEST" position.

b. Place the tester hose on the "Self Test" fitting on the control panel.
c. Verify there are no leaks: the flow meter should indicate no flow (fixed at the bottom of the meter) if it is not fixed at the bottom, repair tester leaks before continuing.

2. Prepare the tester:

a. Adjust the regulated pressure using the (black) Low Pressure Regulator knob to 14 inches of water on the control panel pressure gauge.
b. Position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "HOLD" position.

c. Remove the evaporative emission tester hose from the "Self-Test" port and connect it to the 0.20" calibrated leak orifice on the control panel of the Mazda Evaporative Emission Tester.

d. Position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "TEST" position.
e. Observe the flow meter indicator ball. Position the flow meter flag so it aligns with the center of the indicator ball.

f. Position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "HOLD" position.
g. Disconnect the tester hose from the 0.20 inch calibrated leak orifice.

3. Connect the tester hose to the EVAP Service Test Port on the vehicle.
NOTE:
Be careful when connecting the EVAP tester hose. On B-Series Trucks it is easy to cross thread due to the angle of the test fitting. On Tribute 2.3L be careful to route the EVAP tester hose so it does not contact the exhaust.
CAUTION:
Do not remove the schrader valve from either the EVAP Purge Valve or the Electronic Vapor Management valve, as this can permanently damage the valve.


4. Use WDS, ID the vehicle, then select Output State Control for Data logger PID, select the PID EVAPCV#) and at the bottom of the screen, select both MODE # ) and PER # ). Command the EVAP Canister Vent valve to 100% duty cycle to close it.
NOTE:
Perform testing and inspections efficiently. On some models, the EVAP Canister Vent valve may automatically open afier nine minutes of operation.


5. Position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "TEST" position. NOTE: A leak free evaporative emission system will take less than 2-minutes to pressurize.

6. Determine whether the flow meter indicator ball is above or below the red indicator flag:
a. If the measurement is below the indicator flag, the system is leaking less than 0.20" and the system passed, go to STEP 7.
b. If the measurement is above the indicator flag, position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "HOLD" position and locate any leaks by performing: PROCEDURE 2: Locating An Evaporative Emission System Leak Using Smoke.

7. Verify proper FTP sensor operation:
a. Position the control valve on the evaporative emission tester to the "HOLD" position.
b. Use WDS data logger and select the FTP (volts) PID.
c. Remove the fuel filler cap and turn the ignition switch to the run position.
d. Verify the FTP (volts) PID, it should be approximately 2.6 volts:
^ If FTP is greater than 2.8 volts or less than 2.4 volts, replace the FTP sensor and verify the FTP sensor operation from step "7a" above again.
^ If FTP is 2.6 volts, the sensor is in the correct range and the concern is not present.
e. Go to PROCEDURE 3: Checking The Canister Purge Valve For A No Flow Condition (P0455), and Checking FTP Sensor Operation

PROCEDURE 2: Locating An Evaporative Emission System Leak Using Smoke

NOTE:
Verify there is adequate smoke test fluid in the smoke tester reservoir.

1. Prepare for testing:
a. Locate the EVAP Canister Purge Valve or Electronic Vapor Management Valve in the engine compartment.
b. Identify the FUEL VAPOR TO INTAKE MANIFOLD hose and disconnect it.



2. Connect the Evaporative Emission system tester smoke machine battery cables to the vehicle's battery.
a. Press and hold the smoke button. The indicator ball in the flow meter will go all the way to the top indicating that the system is pressurizing.
b. Continue to hold the smoke button for 15 seconds or until the flow meter ball stops descending. It may take 3-5 minutes for the flow meter to settle (longer with lower fuel levels).

3. Position the control valve on the Mazda Evaporative Emission Tester to the "TEST" position.

4. Command the EVAP Canister Vent valve (EVAPCV # )) ON or 100% duty cycle.
NOTE:
Perform testing and inspections efficiently. On some models, you may lose pressure after nine minutes of CDCV operation. If this happens, repeat step 3 and 4 above then continue leak inspections.

5. If smoke begins to dissipate, press and hold the smoke button for 15 seconds.

6. Inspect the purge valve for leaks (especially the port of the hose which was disconnected in step 1):
^ If the purge valve leaks, stop testing and replace the purge valve before additional leak testing.

7. Check the rest of the evaporative emission system for leaks using the halogen test light:
a. Trace the hoses back from the engine compartment to the fuel tank and charcoal canister.
b. Wiggle lines and inspect areas in frame rails and on top of components.
c. Inspect around the charcoal canister, and the EVAP Canister Cut Valve.
d. Make sure to inspect for leaks at the Canister Drain Cut Valve fresh air inlet hose while the CDCV is closed. Locations vary see below:
^ 2001-2002 Tribute in the engine compartment near left front shock tower
^ 2003-2005 Tribute by the fuel filler neck
^ B-Series Truck inside the driver side frame rail near the charcoal canister
e. Inspect the fuel filler neck and valves and seals on top of the fuel tank.

8. After repairs are made, check for leaks using PROCEDURE 1: Verifying A Very Small Leak Exists In The Evaportive Emission System.

PROCEDURE 3: Checking The Canister Purge Valve For A No Flow Condition (P0455), and Checking FTP Sensor Operation
1. Warm the engine to operating temperature.

2. Using WDS: select Output State Control for Data logger PID, select the following PID's:
(EVAPVM # ) or EVMV # )), EVAPCV # ) and FTP volts. At the bottom of the screen, select both MODE # ) and PER # ) for all PIDs.

3. Start the vehicle.

4. Close the following valves using WDS:
a. EVAP Canister Vent valve: Switch the EVAPCV # ) ON or 100% duty cycle
b. EVAP Canister Purge Valve (EVAPVM # )) or Electronic Vapor Management Valve (EVMV#)): Switch it OFF or Zero% duty cycle or zero amps.

5. While monitoring the FTP volts PID on WDS:
^ Command the EVAP Canister Purge Valve (EVAPVM # )) or Electronic Vapor Management Valve (EVMV # )) ON or 100% duty cycle or 1.0 amp.

6. Determine condition:
^ If the FTP volts PID decreased and the engine RPM stumbles or the engine stalls, the test is passed, go to STEP 7.
^ If the engine RPM did not stumble or stall, replace the EVAP Vapor Management Valve and go to STEP 7.
^ If the FTP volts PID did not decrease (even if the engine RPM stumbles or the engine stalls), replace the FTP sensor and go to STEP 7.

7. Verify repair:
Perform an EVAP test using WDS or equivalent:
a. Select "Toolbox"
b. Select "Powertrain"
c. Select "Fuel"
d. Select "EVAP"
^ If test fails, return to PROCEDURE 1: Verifying A Very Small Leak Exists In The Evaporative Emission System Emission System Or After Repair Leak Test
^ If test passes, disconnect test equipment and return vehicle to customer.
 
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