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The 3 buttons that don't work are wired directly to the sync module. If you remove the sync module you should be able to tap those wires and bridge them with the other two SWC wires going to the radio harness.
Lots of info on the subject here: Guide to Adding SYNC to 2008 Escape
 

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There would be no need to keep the sync module at this point. All of the SWC media buttons are the old school resistor ladder variety. The 3 buttons for sync are hard wired to the sync module just as the other 5 are hard wired to the back of the radio. They are not connected to the CANBUS.
 

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It is definitely two wires coming from the sync module and going to the 16 pin steering wheel clockspring connector. I would try to find the two wires on the 54 pin connector with a multi meter before you cut them. If you are on the correct pins you should have about 1000 ohms resistance with no buttons on the steering wheel pressed. When you press and hold a button a different resistance reading will be observed.

I found the instructions for the Maestro SW that sort of shows which wires to tap.


Font Communication Device Portable communications device Telephony Gadget

Font Line Parallel Screenshot Rectangle

According to these instructions, the blue/orange and white/violet wires at the 54 pin connector should be the wires that you need to find.
 

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I think the pinout in your link is too new. In 2013-2016 you would have sync 1.5/2.0. For the Escapes of 09-12 vintage it was definitely sync 1.0. In this link the Sync SWC switches are on pins 14-15.

I would also try 46-47 if you have not already.

I guess when I say clockspring connector, I am referring to the connector on the steering column, not inside the wheel. If you do decide to pop off the air bag, it is pretty easy. just find an allen wrench that fits in the the small hole in the bottom of the center of the steering wheel. You will be pushing a spring wire out of the way. Just feel around until you touch it and then it takes a bit of force to move it which will cause the plastic center/airbag to pop out. At that point it is just a matter of unclipping the airbag wire connector and releasing a small spade connector for the horn wire. With the airbag out you will have a visual on where the going from the top clockspring plug over to the SWC buttons.
 

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I don't have a table of the resistance values of the sync buttons handy but attached should be the values for the 5 radio buttons. There is some space to work with between the 514 ohm of the media button and the 1.1 kohm of no buttons pressed. If you could add a resistor inline to the sync buttons such that they would have resistance of values of say 600, 700 & 800 ohms it might work just fine. If you can't get a workable result adding a resistor inline, then doing surgery on the button itself to change the individual resistors might be the only way to make it work.

Font Material property Parallel Rectangle Pattern
 

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It looks like surgery on the buttons module to change the resistors is the only way to get all of the buttons to work together on one channel.
 
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